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Traditional Media

 

Broadcast Media Terms

Adjacency
an advertising pod positioned next to a particular TV or radio program. Also called commercial break positions.
Affidavit
a statement, usually notarized, accompanying station invoices which confirms that the commercial actually ran at the time stated on the invoice.
Affiliate
a station associated with a network by contract to broadcast the network’s programs.
Air Date
the first broadcast of a commercial; also refers to the exact date of a particular TV or radio program.
Availability (“avails”)
unsold units of time available for broadcasters to sell to advertisers. Also refers to a station’s submission of programs and rating estimates for advertising planning and buying.
Average Quarter-Hour Rating
the audience estimate reported by Nielsen and Arbitron for television and radio. It provides the average number of persons or households who watched/listened for at least 5 minutes of the 15 minute segment being reported.
Bonus Spot
additional TV or radio spot provided to an advertiser at no charge to raise the overall audience delivery of the schedule.
Break Position
a broadcast commercial aired between two programs instead of in the middle of one program.
Broadcast Calendar
an industry-accepted calendar used mainly for accounting and billing purposes. Weeks run Monday-Sunday, and each month is four or five weeks long.
Cable TV
TV programming that is delivered by coaxial cable rather than over the air for the purposes of improved reception and delivery of additional program choices beyond the local stations.
Clearance
a station’s agreement to carry a particular program.
Cut-In
a commercial inserted by the local station that covers the commercial airing at the same time on the network at the advertiser’s request. Useful for testing different copy in a limited geography.
Daypart
one of the time segments into which the day is divided by broadcast media, determined by type of programming and who provides it (network or local).
Designated Market Area (DMA)
Nielsen’s term for geographical areas made up of exclusive counties based on which home market stations receive the predominant share of viewing.
Diary
an instrument for measuring viewing, listening or reading of media vehicles kept by people in a sample.
Drive Time
the dayparts used in radio to signify primary listening being done in cars. Generally considered to be Monday-Friday 6- 10 a.m. and 3-7 p.m. HUT-(Households Using Television) – a broadcast research term indicating the percent of homes with sets on during a specific time period.
ID
station identification of its call letters and location, channel or frequency. Also refers to any commercial message less than ten seconds long.
Infomercial
a long (more than two minutes) commercial providing extensive product/service description and sales information.
Log
chronological record of a station’s program and commercial exact air times.
Network
two or more stations joined by a line to broadcast the same program from a few original studios simultaneously.
Network Affiliate
a television or radio station that designates a portion of its air time for network programs.
O & O Station
a station owned and operated by a network.
O.T.O.
one time only, usually referring to a TV or radio special program.
Overnights
audience data provided by Nielsen or Arbitron to metered market clients the day after the broadcast.
Pay Per View
a type of Pay TV where viewers are charged each time they watch the special event or movie being broadcast.
Pay TV
a TV system providing programs which are available only to the households who subscribe, usually transmitted via coaxial cable or telephone lines. Also called “premium channels” on cable, such is HBO, Cinemax, Showtime, Disney Channel, etc.
Persons Using Radio (PUR)
the percent of the area’s population listening to radio at a specific time.
Piggyback
back-to-back scheduling of two or more brand commercials of one advertiser in network or spot positions.
Pilot
a sample of a proposed television series.
Pre-emption
the substitution of one advertiser’s local TV commercial by another advertiser paying a higher price for the spot, or by a different program of interest.
PVT/PUT (Persons Viewing or Using Television)
the percent of individuals viewing all television stations during a specific time period, indicating total viewing to TV in general, not to a specific program or station.
Roadblocking
a scheduling technique where a brand’s commercial airs at approximately the same time on all three networks or on all stations in a given market.
R.O.S. (Run Of Schedule or Run Of Station)
a broadcast schedule, similar to R.O.P. where specific programs and air times have not been requested by the advertiser.
Simulcast
broadcast of the same program at the same time on both AM and FM radio stations. Can also refer to a radio station simultaneously broadcasting the audio portion of a TV program.
Spill-In
the amount of programming viewed within a market area to stations that are licensed to an adjacent market.
Spill-Out
the amount of viewing to local stations outside the home market area.
Strip
a program scheduled at the same time each day, typically Monday-Friday.
Superstation
an independent station whose signal is transmitted to many markets via a satellite.
Sweeps
the four 4-week periods when all TV markets are measured by Nielsen and Arbitron for station viewing and demographic information. Sweep months are February, May, July and November.
Syndicated Program
a program bought by a station or advertiser from an independent organization, not a network.
TAP (Total Audience Plan)
a radio schedule consisting of equal distribution of commercials across all major dayparts.
Turnover
the ratio of a cumulative audience to the average audience for a given period of time. Indicates how loyal a given audience may be for specific stations or programs.
Upfront
a term indicating that an advertiser has purchased advertising for the coming broadcast year in an early buying season, typically for the benefit of lower rates and CPM guarantees.
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General Media Terms

Advertising Impressions
the audience delivery of media vehicles, programs or schedules. Usually expressed as thousands (000).
Advertising Research Foundation (ARF)
a non-profit organization of advertisers, agencies and the media for promoting advertising effectiveness through objective research.
Advertising Weight
the level of advertising support over a period of time, expressed in gross rating points, impressions, target audience reached, etc.
Aided Recall
a research technique where the respondent is given aid to help remember all or parts of advertising.
As It Falls
a testing method whereby the media test market receives the same media weight, purchased locally, as it would receive from a national theoretical plan.
Average Frequency
the number of times the average person or household is exposed to an advertising schedule. It is always derived from Gross Rating Points and Reach.
Barter
a term used to indicate that advertising was paid for by the advertiser using goods and services rather than cash.
BDI (Brand Development Index)
a measure of the strength of a brand’s sales in a particular geographic area indexed to the national sales average.
CDI (Category Development Index)
a measurement of a brand’s sales potential using sales of all brands within a category in a specific market indexed to national sales average.
Clutter
the term given to the proliferation of advertising messages aimed at consumers. In TV, it refers to all nonprogram minutes, such as commercials, station promotions, billboards, public service announcements, etc.
Cost Per Rating Point (Cost Per Point, CPP, Cost Per GRP)
the cost to reach one percent of the universe, households or individuals, in a given market or geographic area.
Cost Per Thousand (CPM)
the cost to reach 1,000 units of audience, households or individuals, for advertising. Used as a measure of efficiency among media and media schedules.
Coverage Area
the specific geography where a media vehicle has its coverage. In broadcast, coverage usually describes the area to which the station’s signal extends. In print, coverage usually means the circulation area.
Cume (Cumulative Audience)
another way of expressing reach. The total number of different people or households exposed to advertising at least once during the media schedule.
Direct Response Advertising
any advertising message that calls for a prompt response to purchase a product or request more information.
Duplication
the number or percent of the target audience in one media vehicle also exposed to another vehicle.
Efficiency
the ratio of cost to size of audience used to compare media vehicles, plans or schedules.
Exclusivity
an agreement whereby a media vehicle agrees to run no advertising directly competitive to the advertiser purchasing the media vehicle or program.
First Refusal
the opportunity for an advertiser to extend sponsorship rights of a program or vehicle before it is offered to another advertiser.
Fixed Position
an advertising position which remains fixed over time, such as the inside cover of a magazine.
Flighting
a technique for extending advertising dollars using periods of media activity interspersed with periods of inactivity.
Flow Chart
a calendar which dimensionalizes media activity over time, usually a year.
FY
an abbreviation for Fiscal Year.
Gross Impressions
the combined audiences of several media vehicles or several announcements within a vehicle, leaving in the duplication among the audiences.
Gross Rating Points (GRP’s)
the sum of individual ratings in a media plan.
Guarantee
a commitment to the advertiser by a medium that should audience delivery fall short of what was estimated, the advertiser will receive bonus advertising to meet the expected CPM or GRP’s.
Heavy-up
an increase in advertising activity for a limited period of time.
Hiatus
a scheduled period of inactivity between advertising flights.
Little America (or Little U.S.)
refers to the method of media testing where a national campaign might be tested first in markets that are most similar demographically to the total country.
LNA (Leading National Advertisers)
a syndicated research source reporting advertisers’ spending in media: network and spot TV, network radio, magazines, newspaper supplements and outdoor.
Mail-Order Advertising
type of advertising in which the complete sales transaction takes place through the mail.
Makegood
comparable unit of advertising offered at no charge when the original spot or ad did not run or ran incorrectly.
Mediamark Research Inc. (MRI)
a syndicated research source measuring print and broadcast media audiences and product/brand usage profiles.
Net Cost
advertising rates which do not include advertising agency commission and/or include discounts.
Penetration
the degree to which a medium or vehicle has coverage in a specific area. Can also refer to the effectiveness of advertising’s impact on consumers.
Per Inquiry (P.I.)
agreement between a media owner and an advertiser where the advertiser pays the owner for advertising on the basis of the number of inquiries or completed sales from the advertising.
Psychographic
describes consumers on the basis of some psychological trait, characteristics or life style.
Quintile
the division of the audience or sample into five equal groups ranging from heaviest to lightest amount of exposure to any medium.
Rate Card
a statement by a medium showing advertising costs, issue dates, program names, closing dates, requirements, cancellation dates, etc.
Rating
an estimate of the size of an audience expressed as one percent of the total population.
Reach
the unduplicated percent of a potential audience exposed to advertising one or more times during a given period.
Roll Out
an advertising technique where advertising is expanded to cover more and more markets as distribution/ product sales are also expanded.
Share
the percent of an audience tuned to a particular program at a given time.
Share of Voice (SOV)
a brand’s percent of the total advertising weight in its product category.
Short Rate
the cost difference between the discounted contract rate and the higher rate actually earned by an advertiser if he fails to fulfill the contracted amount of advertising.
Simmons Market Research Bureau (SMRB)
a syndicated source of print and broadcast audience measurement, as well as product usage data.
Sponsorship
purchase of all or part of a TV program or all pages of a magazine.
Standard Rate & Data Service (SRDS)
monthly reports of publications’, TV and radio stations’ rate cards and supporting technical information arranged by state and market.
Starch
a research company providing print advertising readership information.
Telmar
a computer system offering various media planning systems for reach and frequency, as well as cross tabulation of data from Simmons and MRI.
Vehicle
anything capable of exposing advertising to customers.

Out-of-Home Terms

Billboard
an outdoor advertising display. Also, in broadcast, a short 5 or 10 second announcement indicating advertiser sponsorship of a program.
Facing
in outdoor, the number of billboards at a location facing in the same direction. In marketing, the number of units facing the shopper on a shelf in a grocery, drug, discount store. etc.
Poster Panel
the standard outdoor advertising display unit, usually 25′ x 12′.
Showing
a group of outdoor boards which provide a certain percent coverage of a market, usually purchased in increments of 25 (e.g. a #25 showing, a #50 showing, a #75 showing, a #100 showing).

Print Media Terms

Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC)
organization of publishers, advertising agencies and advertisers for verifying the circulation statements of member publications.
Advertising Checking Bureau (ACB)
a company which provides advertisers and agencies with newspaper tear sheets of ads which have run.
Agate Line
a unit of measurement for newspaper advertising which measures one column wide with 14 agate lines per inch.
Bleed
a term used for print advertising that extends all the way to the edge of the page with no margin. Many magazines charge a premium for the bleed, usually 15%.
Business Publication Audit of Circulation (BPA)
an organization for auditing the circulation of business (trade) publications.
Checkerboard
magazine advertising that uses diagonal quarter or half page ads alternating with editorial.
Checking Copy
a copy of a publication sent to the advertiser and the agency as proof the ad ran as ordered.
Circulation
the total number of distributed copies of a publication at a specified time. Also, in broadcast, the total number of households within the station’s coverage area. In outdoor, the number of people passing the billboards who have an opportunity to see the advertising.
Closing Date
the date by which all advertising must be ordered from the specific media vehicle in order to secure the dates/times/positions requested.
Column Inch
a unit of newspaper space one column wide and one inch deep (14 agate lines).
Direct Mail Advertising
any printed material sent through the mail directly to prospective customers.
Double Truck
a newspaper ad unit that uses two facing full pages, including the gutter or fold.
Gutter
the blank space between margins of facing pages of a publication.
Insertion Order
written instructions from the advertiser or agency authorizing a publication to run a specific advertisement in a specific issue. Also specifies cost per ad and size of ad, as well as any request for special position in the publication.
Island Position
a print advertisement surrounded completely by editorial.
Line Rate
the cost per agate line for newspapers.
Magazine Supplement
the magazine section of a Sunday newspaper produced either locally or nationally.
Net Paid Circulation
a term used by ABC for the circulation of a publication for which at least 50% of the subscription or newsstand price has been paid.
PBW, P4C
abbreviations for Page Black & White and Page Four Color.
Pass-along Audience
readers of magazines or newspapers who did not purchase the publication. Also called Secondary Audience.
Publishers Information Bureau (PIB)
a syndicated source of monthly reports on advertising activity in major consumer magazines, reported by product or service category.
Publisher’s Statement
a notarized statement from the publisher of total circulation, geographic distribution, method of getting subscriptions, etc.
Readers Per Copy
average number of readers for one copy of a newspaper or magazine.
Regional Edition
an edition of a national publication’s circulation that falls in a certain geographic area for which advertising may be purchased separately, usually at a cost premium.
Remnant Space
magazine space sold at reduced prices at the last minute when another advertiser’s materials do not arrive or to fill out regional editions.
Run Of Press or Run Of Paper (ROP)
a newspaper insertion for which an exact position is not requested but left to the newspaper’s discretion.
Split Run
scheduling two or more executions of an advertising message in alternate copies of a magazine’s circulation in a given issue.
Tabloid
a newspaper measuring about 5-6 columns wide by 200 lines deep, about 2/3 the size of a standard newspaper.
 
 
 

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